Who Created The Sykes-Picot Agreement

Picot had made disproportionate gains to the actual balance of power in the Levant, a fact that the British exploited to recover most of Sykes` concessions after the war. After the elimination of Russia by the revolution, there was no longer any need for a buffer to protect Mesopotamia from Anatolia. As a result, Mosul was annexed to the new mandate of the British League of Nations in Iraq. In Palestine, the Balfour Declaration was used to replace the international regime agreed with Picot with a purely British mandate. In the eastern Galilee, the borders of the new Palestinian mandate were then moved north to the upper Jordan River and to Yarmouk to include the Samakh Triangle. These forced concessions revived French resentment and eventually led the French authorities in Damascus to refuse to cooperate with british forces besieged in Palestine during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939. After World War II, France`s continued hostility led to retaliation against Britain`s support for Syrian and Lebanese independence by supporting Jewish terrorist groups in Palestine. Their attacks played a crucial role in forcing the British to accept the division of Mandatory Palestine – with ultimately disastrous consequences for their position in the Arab world. A generation after the agreement, the unintended consequences of Sykes-Picot undermined British imperial rule in the Fertile Crescent. Under the terms of the agreement, France would exercise direct control over Cilicia, the coastal strip of Syria, Lebanon and most of the Galilee to the line that extends north of Acre to the northwest corner of the Sea of Galilee (“Blue Zone”). In the east, in the Syrian hinterland, an Arab state was to be created under French protection (“Zone A”).

Britain should exercise control over southern Mesopotamia (“red zone”) as well as the area around Acre-Haifa Bay in the Mediterranean and have the right to build a railway to Baghdad from there. The area east of the Jordan River and the Negev Desert, south of the line from Gaza to the Dead Sea, has been assigned to an Arab state under British protection (“Area B”). The “blue zone” of southern France, in the area that includes Jerusalem`s Sanschak and extends southward to the line that roughly runs from Gaza to the Dead Sea, should be under international administration (“Brown Zone”). From November 1915 to March 1916, representatives of Britain and France agreed on an agreement, with Russia offering its consent. The secret treaty, known as the Sykes-Picot Agreement, was named after its chief negotiators, aristocrats Sir Mark Sykes of England and François Georges-Picot of France. .